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Articles by Julian Jaynes

The Diachronicity of Consciousness
Julian Jaynes, in Giuseppe Trautteur (ed.), Consciousness: Distinction and Reflection (Italy: Bibliopolis, 1995).
Based on a lecture by Julian Jaynes at the "Workshop on Consciousness" in Venice, 1991.

Verbal Hallucinations and Preconscious Mentality
Julian Jaynes, in Manfred Spitzer and Brendan H. Maher (eds.), Philosophy and Psychopathology (New York: Springer Verlag, 1990).
Reprinted in Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness.
Verbal hallucinations were studied in a variety of groups. In a sample of hospitalized schizophrenics and a sample of homeless people on the streets on New York City, such voices were often multiple, critical in women, but more often commands in men, and commonly religious. In a carefully randomized sample of normal college students, a questionnaire study revealed that almost a third had "clearly heard a voice when no one had spoken to me." The voices were identified as parents, friends, dead relatives, or God. From a study of "imaginary playmates," it was concluded that verbal hallucinations were occurring here also. And a non-verbal group of congenital quadriplegics, who had never spoken but with whom communication would be established, heard voices they identified as God, such voices being usually helpful. Parallels were then drawn between modern verbal hallucinations and what is revealed in ancient texts. Ancient civilizations seem to have been governed by such hallucinations called gods, a mentality known as the bicameral mind. It was concluded that the reason verbal hallucinations are found so extensively, in every modern culture, in normal students, schizophrenics, children, and vividly reported in the texts of antiquity is that such hallucinations are an innate propensity, genetically evolved as the basis of an ancient preconscious mentality.

Hearing Voices and the Bicameral Mind
Julian Jaynes, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1986, 9 (3): 526-527.
Discusses auditory verbal hallucinations (VHs) from the viewpoint of case examples, historical evidence, evidence in children, VHs in a nonverbal population, and the bicameral mind. It is suggested that R. E. Hoffman's discussion of VHs and schzophrenia neglects important considerations (i.e., the history, content, variety, and ubiquity of VHs).
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Consciousness and the Voices of the Mind Consciousness and the Voices of the Mind
Julian Jaynes, Canadian Psychology, 1986, 27 (2): 128-148.
Jaynes's invited Bauer Lecture presented at the 1983 McMaster-Bauer Symposium on Consciousness.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.
The problem of consciousness and its corollary the mind body problem have been with us at least since Descartes. An approach to a solution to both may be begun by carefully analyzing consciousness into its component features and modes. It will then be seen that consciousness is based on language, in particular its ability to form metaphors and analogies. The result is that consciousness is not a biological genetic giver, but a linguistic skill learned in human history. Previous to that transitional period, human volition consisted of hearing voices called gods, a relationship I am calling the bicameral mind.

Consciousness and the Voices of the Mind: Open Discussion
Julian Jaynes, Canadian Psychology, 1986, 27 (2): 128-148.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Consciousness and the Voices of the Mind: Response to the Discussants
Julian Jaynes, Canadian Psychology, 1986, 27 (2).
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

How Old Is Consciousness?
Julian Jaynes, in Richard M. Caplan (Ed.) Exploring the Concept of Mind (University of Iowa Press, 1986).

Sensory Pain and Conscious Pain
Julian Jaynes, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1985, 8: 61-63.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Four Hypotheses On The Origin of Mind
Julian Jaynes, Proceedings of the 9th International Wittgenstein Symposium, 1985, 135-142.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

A Two-Tiered Theory of Emotions
Julian Jaynes, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1982, 5: 434-435.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Representations As Metaphiers
Julian Jaynes, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1982, 5: 379-380.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

The Visions of William Blake
Julian Jaynes, Art/World, Sept. 26 - Oct. 17, 1981, 6, 1: 1-6.
Reprinted in Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness.

Art and the Right Hemisphere
Julian Jaynes, Art/World, 1981, 5, 10: 3-6.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

The Dragons of the Shang Dynasty
Julian Jaynes, Art/World, 1980, 4, 9: 5.
Reprinted in Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness.

Paleolithic Cave Paintings As Eidetic Images
Julian Jaynes, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1979, 2: 605-607.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Unconditionally the Last Work On Tut and His Times
Julian Jaynes, Art/World, 1979, 3, 6: 6.

The Meaning of King Tut: A Review of the Tutankhamun Exhibition from the Perspective of the Bicameral Theory
Julian Jaynes, Princeton Alumni Weekly, 1979, June 25, 16-17
Reprinted in University Magazine, 1979, No. 80: 12-13.
Reprinted in Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness.

In A Manner of Speaking: Commentary on Cognition and Consciousness in Non-Human Species
Julian Jaynes, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 1.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

The Evolution of Language in the Late Pleistocene
Julian Jaynes, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 280: 312-325.
In this paper I shall first addess the question of when language evolved, basing my answer on three assumptions. I shall then attempt the question of how language evolved, appealing to a principle of intensity differentiation of call endings and describing how this may have resulted in first modifiers, then commands, and then nouns and names. I shall then insist that this development is roughly correlated with the hastening sequence of archeological artifacts from the Acheulean to Neolithic times. Finally, since such a view demands an exceedingly swift evolution, I shall close with several possibilities of how this "leveraged" evolution, as I shall call it, could have occurred.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Imprinting: The Interaction of Learned and Innate Behavior
Julian Jaynes, Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978, January, Vol. 38 (7-B): 3458.

In the Shadow of the Enlightenment: II. Reimarus and His Theory of Drives
Julian Jaynes and William Woodward, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1974, 10, 2.
Continues a discussion of Reimarus and The Enlightenment. Reimarus's Triebe der Tiere (Drives of Animals) (1760), an expansion of his Principal Truths (1754), classifies animal behavior into 3 types of essential drives. This thorough attack on empiricism is presented, critically discussed, and evaluated in terms of its place in intellectual history.

In the Shadow of the Enlightenment: I. Reimarus Against the Epicureans
Julian Jaynes and William Woodward, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1974, 10, 1.
Reviews the work of Reimarus, an 18th-century German intellectual who was a forceful proponent of the religion of reason (Vernunftreligion). His treatises on logic focused upon the distinctions between the reasoning powers of man and the instincts of animals. He protested against the revitalized Epicurean doctrine that man originated by chance progression from more primitive animal forms. The Vornehmsten Wahrheiten, one of his important defenses of the traditional creation doctrine in terms of the "Principal Truths of Natural Religion," is discussed in detail.

The Origin of Consciousness
Julian Jaynes, in D. Krech (ed.), The MacLeod Symposium (Ithaca: Cornell Department of Psychology, 1973).
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

The Study of the History of Psychology
Julian Jaynes, Introduction to Mary Henle, Julian Jaynes, and John J. Sullivan (eds.), Historical Conceptions of Psychology (New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1973).
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

The Problem of Animate Motion in the Seventeenth Century
Julian Jaynes, in Mary Henle, Julian Jaynes, and John J. Sullivan (eds.), Historical Conceptions of Psychology (New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1973)
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.
Motion is now so much the domain of physics that it is difficult for us to appreciate that this was not always so. Before the seventeenth century, motion was a far more awesome mystery. Shared by all objects, stars, ships, animals, and men - and, since Copernicus, the very earth itself - it seemed to hide the answer to everything. The Aristotelian writings had made motion or activity the distinctive property of living things, an idea that occurs naturally to children and primitive peoples of all centuries. Because they moved, the stars were thought by no less a scientist than Kepler to be animated. Motion perplexed Gilbert, who became convinced that magnets had souls because of their ability to move and be moved. And Campanella in his Neapolitan prison, when he understood what Copernicus was saying, that the earth really moved, exclaimed, "Mundum esse, totum sentiens!" In a world so sentient and alive, motion is everywhere. And one of the first major intellectual developments of the seventeenth century gathered itself to this theme. I shall try to show in this essay that when this idea of animate motion is clarified, one result is the sorting of the sciences by their subject matter as we know them today.

The Historical Origins of "Ethology" and "Comparative Psychology"
Julian Jaynes, Animal Behaviour, 1969, 17 (4): 601-606.
Both terms come out of the polarization in French biology created by the Cuvier-Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire debates. Cuvier's protege, Flourens, founded comparative psychology in 1864, and Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire's son founded ethology in 1859. Whereas comparative psychology as a term was eagerly taken up, there appearing 5 texts with it as the title in the late 1870's, ethology was less successful. Mill had previously defined ethology as character education, and Haeckel coined ecology to mean the same thing. Giard, however, championed ethology as did his student, Bohn, and then Wheeler at Harvard. In the 1930s, Pelseneer insisted ethology should be quantitative, comparative, and phylogenetic. After World War II, the term comes to cover the observations of Tinbergen, Lorenz, Baerends, and others. The current connotations of both terms are consistent with their origins in 19th century French biology.

Generalization and Analogy in Comparative Psychology
Julian Jaynes, Paper given at Eastern Psychological Association, April, 1969. Mimeographed.

Edwin Garrigues Boring: 1886-1968
Julian Jaynes, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1969, 5 (2): 99-112.
Reprinted in The Julian Jaynes Collection.

Effect of Duration of Reinstatement on Retention of A Visual Discrimination Learned in Infancy
Byron A. Campbell and Julian Jaynes, Developmental Psychology, 1969, 1 (2): 71-74.
160 weaning rats were trained on a light-dark discrimination and then given 1 reinstatement per wk. for 10 wk. They were then tested for retention of the original discrimination. 5 different durations of reinstatement were used: 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The longer the weekly reinstatement, the better the retention of the discrimination when tested either by relearning or resistance to extinction.

Reinstatement
Byron A. Campbell and Julian Jaynes, in N. S. Endler, L. R. Boulter and H. R. Osser, Contemporary Issues in Developmental Psychology (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968).

A New Role for the Historian of Psychology
Julian Jaynes, Lecture at NSF Conference, July, 1968. Mimeographed.

Retention of A Light-dark Discrimination in Rats of Different Ages
Byron A. Campbell and Julian Jaynes, and J.R. Misanin, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 66 (2): 467-72.
(Split into Journal of Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience in 1982.)

Washed Coins, Starved Pigs, Alleged Reinforcement
Julian Jaynes, Contemporary Psychology, 1967, 12: 554-556.

Lord Brain's "Science and Man"
Julian Jaynes, American Scientist, 1966, 94-102.

Reinstatement
Byron A. Campbell and Julian Jaynes, Psychological Review, 1966, 73 (5): 478-80.

The Routes of Science
Julian Jaynes, American Scientist, 1966, 54, 1, pgs. 94-102.

Species Differences in Activity During Hunger and Thirst
Byron A. Campbell, N.F. Smith, J.R. Misanin, Julian Jaynes, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1966, 61 (1): 123-7.
(Split into Journal of Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience in 1982.)

Imprinting: The Interaction of Learned and Innate Behavior
Julian Jaynes, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1956, 49: 201-206.
(Split into Journal of Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience in 1982.)

Studies of Maternal Retrieving in Rats: III: Sensory Cues Involved in the Lactating Female's Response to Her Young
Frank A. Beach and Julian Jaynes, Behavior, 1956, 10: 104-125.

Studies of Maternal Retrieving in Rats: II: Effects of Practice and Previous Parturitions
Frank A. Beach and Julian Jaynes, American Naturalist, 1956, 90: 103-109.

Studies of Maternal Retrieving in Rats: I: Recognition of Young
Frank A. Beach and Julian Jaynes, Journal of Mammology, 1956, 37: 177-180.

Effects of Early Experience Upon The Behavior of Animals
Frank A. Beach and Julian Jaynes, Psychological Bulletin, 1954, 51: 239-263.

Learning A Second Response to a Cue as a Function of the Magnitude of the First
Julian Jaynes, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1950, 43: 398-408.
(Split into Journal of Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience in 1982.)

The Function of the Frontal Cortex
W. Stanley and Julian Jaynes, Psychological Review, 1949, 56: 18-32.
The evidence on frontal cortex function is reviewed.