Indirectly Related Articles / Articles Referencing Julian Jaynes's Theory
The Hallucinating Brain: A Review of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Hallucinations
Allen, P., F. Laroi, P.K. McGuire, A. Aleman. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2008, 32 (1): 175-191. + Show Summary
Hallucinations remains one of the most intriguing phenomena in psychopathology. In the past two decades the advent of neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers to investigate what is happening in the brain of those who experience hallucinations. In this article we review both structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with auditory and visual hallucinations as well as a small number of studies that have assessed cognitive processes associated with hallucinations in healthy volunteers. The current literature suggests that in addition to secondary (and occasionally primary) sensory cortices, dysfunction in prefrontal premotor, cingulate, subcortical and cerebellar regions also seem to contribute to hallucinatory experiences. Based on the findings of these studies we tentatively propose a neurocognitive model in which both bottom-up and top-down processes interact to produce these erroneous percepts. Finally, directions for future work are discussed.
Anstey, Josephine, Neil Coletta, Dave Pape, Courtney Hatten, Min Young Kim, Debra Burhans, Devin Wilson Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition, 2013, 24-31. + Show Summary
Improvising Consciousness is an experimental work of intermedia performance: a cognitive science fiction which addresses questions of situated consciousness, pre- & post-human identity, and creativity. The core of the Improvising Consciousness project is a performative lecture on the history and future of the human mind. The lecture is typically accompanied by participatory activities, these have included: work-shopping of alter-egos; improvisation in a multiple personality melodrama; an interactive visual short story; play sessions with a mixed-reality alien intelligence; and a physical game dealing with pre-historic cognition. The creative team include researchers in interactive drama, virtual and mixed reality, visual novels, AI, robotics and performance. They are members of a group which has a track record of producing innovative syntheses of computer-based technology and live performance.
Ambidexterity and Magical Ideation
Barnett K.J. and M. Corballis. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain, and Cognition, 2002, 7 (1): 75-84. + Show Summary
In a sample of 250 healthy undergraduate students, scores on a scale of magical ideation rose to a peak at the point of ambilaterality on a scale of hand preference, and fell away with increasing right- or left-handedness. This effect mirrors that reported by Crow, Crow, Done, and Leask (1998) who found a dip in academic abilities at the point of ambilaterality, or what they call ''the point of hemispheric indecision''. We relate these findings to genetic theories of laterality in which one allele (RS+) codes for left-cerebral dominance while the other (RS-) leaves laterality to chance. RS-- homozygotes may be susceptible to a lack of dominance, resulting in a disposition to magical ideation and an increased risk of schizophrenia, but also enhanced creativity and lateral thinking.
Caring for the Psyche: Classical Origins and Modern Paradigms
Bemporad, Jules. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 1996, 24: 353-363.
The Real, the Virtual, and the Moral: Ethics at the Intersection of Consciousness
Bivins, Thomas H. and Julianne H. Newton. Journal of Mass Media Ethics: Exploring Questions of Media Morality, 2003, 18(3-4):213-229. + Show Summary
The promise of virtual reality is that it may eventually lead us to a "third state of consciousness" transcending the objective reality of our embodied beings and opening up to us a world of expanded realization. However, the recurring themes of our hero myths, both religious and secular, remind us of the importance of remaining grounded in the real world of embodied people and phenomenal perception. Advances in neuroscience even suggest that unconscious processing of perceptual stimuli may guide our behaviors. Thus, the journey from the phenomenal to the noumenal is a round-trip ticket. We take with us the strength of our moral convictions to serve us on our journey and bring back the spiritual expansion that always comes of travel.
Reflections on Metaphor and the Nature of Mind
Buchman, Ethan. Studies by Undergraduate Researchers at Guelph, 2011, 4 (2). + Show Summary
Experience is not given to us; it is constructed. As we develop in a particular culture, our minds establish a framework of reality by which we are able to make judgments about the world and discern its nature. Each culture develops a slightly different framework, and tends to see the world in slightly different ways. We often lose sight of this fact, finding ourselves hypnotized by our own mental constructions and technologies. It is through the power of metaphor that we become ensnared in illusory conceptions of reality. But it is also through this same power that we may free ourselves from these bonds.
Cerebral Glucography with Positron Tomography: Use In Normal Subjects and In Patients with Schizophrenia
Buchsbaum, M.S., D.H. Ingvar, R. Kessler, R.N. Waters, J. Cappelletti, D.P. van Kammen, A.C. King, et al. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1982, 39: 251-259. + Show Summary
Local cerebral uptake of deoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18 was measured by positron-emission tomography in eight patients with schizophrenia who were not receiving medication and in six age-matched normal volunteers. Subjects sat in an acoustically treated, darkened room with eyes closed after injection of 3 to 5 mCi of deoxyglucose 18F. After uptake, seven to eight horizontal brain scans parallel to the canthomeatal line were done. Scans were treated digitally, with a 2.3-cm strip peeled off each slice and ratios to whole-slice activity computed. Patients with schizophrenia showed lower ratios in the frontal cortex, indicating relatively lower glucose use than normal control subjects; this was consistent with previously reported studies of regional cerebral blood flow. Patients also showed diminished ratios for a 2.3-cm square that was positioned over central gray-matter areas on the left but not on the right side. These findings are preliminary; issues of control of mental activity, brain structure identification, and biologic and anatomic heterogeneity of schizophrenia remain to be explored.
Demons, Doubles, and Dinosaurs: Life before Man, The Origin of Consciousness, and 'The Icicle'
Carrington, Ildiko de Papp. Essays on Canadian Writing, 1986, 33. + Show Summary
Presents information on the novel Life Before Man, by Margaret Atwood. Details on the epigraphs of the novel; Importance of the epigraph to the structure of the novel.
The Reels of Consciousness (Book Review)
Cornwell, J., Brain, 2013, 136: 3200-3203.
The Origins of Jewish Guilt: Psychological, Theological, and Cultural Perspectives
Dein, Simon. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 2013, 15 (2): 123-137. + Show Summary
The idea that guilt and Judaism are closely interlinked has a long historical legacy. After discussing recent work on anthropology and emotion focusing on shame and guilt, we examine three theories purporting to account for this link: psychoanalytic, theological, and guilt as a cultural stereotype particularly the notion of the Jewish mother.
We human beings may not be the most admirable species on the planet, or the most likely to survive for another millennium, but we are without any doubt at all the most intelligent. We are also the only species with language. What is the relation between these two obvious facts?
Faith: The Fifth Psychological Need?
Dennis, Brent G. Journal for Reality Therapy, 1989, 8 (2): 39-56. + Show Summary
Argues that new discoveries in brain science suggest that faith may be another basic human need in addition to the needs of belonging, power, fun, and freedom suggested by W. Glasser (1986). The author briefly discusses brain structure and some major events in brain science, including the study of a weakened frontal-limbic connection in a 25-year old man; the frontal lobe surgery of A. Moniz; the split-brain discoveries of R. Sperry; and the brain stimulation discoveries of W. Penfield. In discussing the modular organization theory of M. S. Gazzaniga (1988) and the bicameral mind theory of J. Jaynes (1977), the author suggests that brain structure and physiology may contribute to the existence of spiritual beliefs.
Free Will and the Brain: Are We Automata?
Duch, Wlodzislaw. Chapter in M. Jaskula and B. Buszewski (eds.), Ethics and Science for the Environment, 3rd European Forum., Societas Humboldtiana Polonorum, 2011, 155-170. + Show Excerpt
"However, just when self-consciousness emerged as a trait of the brain is in debate. Julian Jaynes, a psychologist at Princeton, proposed "the bicameral mind" hypothesis claiming that until about 3000 years ago, people had no subjective consciousness, the capacity for self-awareness that we experience as consciousness. They were
not conscious of their own thought processes. His argument is based on the lack of evidence in such early texts as the Iliad, Odyssey and Bible of introspection or self awareness. Thirteenth century medieval illuminations still show ancient authors being dictated to by divines. Although Jaynes idea of consciousness as a neurological adaptation to social complexity is still speculative there is no doubt that we are not aware of most high-level processes, and can even find ourselves suddenly humming on whistling, or acting and trying to rationalize that behaviour later."
The Evolution of Childhood Reconsidered
Ebel, Henry. Journal of Psychohistory, 1977, 5 (1): 67-80. + Show Summary
Reviews reactions to L. deMause's basic essay, "The Evolution of Childhood" (1974), by historians and presents criticism of various parts of that paper. Although deMause's theory that historical change rests on the evolution of parent-child relations is supported, the question is raised as to why particular directions occurred in that evolution. "Psychogenic" progress is the remarkable history of a single variant strain in the history of humanity, that had both a sense of advanced purpose in parent–child relations and a consistent "missionary" sense that enabled this group to impose its values worldwide. Another point is that "good mothers" did exist before the year 1700, contrary to deMause's thesis, particularly among the ancient Jews and Christians. A possible relationship between functions of the right hemisphere of the brain and deMause's theory is discussed.
Laterlized Temporal-Limbic Dysfunction and Psychopathology
Flor-Henry, P. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 28: 777-795.
The Executive Brain: Frontal Lobes and the Civilized Mind (Book Review)
Forrest, David V. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2002, 159: 1615-1616.
The Evolution of the Concept of Psyche from Homer to Aristotle
Gabor, Katona. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 2002, 22 (1): 28-44. + Show Summary
In the following essay the author examines those aspects of the evolution of the concept of psyche from Homer to Aristotle that show striking dissimilarities with our modern understanding of the soul/mind. In this analysis, the author gives more room to the problem of the Homeric soul-words, for Homer's picture of the soul seems to be especially challenging for our conceptual schemes. The guiding suspicion during this study is that there is a temptation for modern students of this subject to suppose a greater continuity between their understanding of what it is to be a soul or mind and ancient thinkers' grasp of the same experiential field than is warranted by available textual evidence.
The Split-Brain Human Computer User Interface
Garvey, Gregory P. Leonardo, 2002, 35 (3): 319-325. + Show Summary
Inspired by accounts of split-brain research and anticipated by experiments of the Surrealists, this interface-like work in augmented virtual reality and wearable computing aims at "enhanced" interaction while creating a new aesthetic experience.
Panic! Affect Contagion, Mimesis and Suggestion in the Social Field
Gibbs, Anna. Cultural Studies Review, 2008, 14: 2. + Show Excerpt
"Julian Jaynes, writing brilliantly and eccentrically in 1976, sees trance states as a reactivation of the 'neural patterning' associated with a stage in human development before the invention of consciousness. Jaynes sees the 'bicameral paradigm' as comprising 'collective cognitive imperative, induction, trance, and
archaic authorization, so for him neither trance - nor mimesis - originate in affect contagion or sympathy. He argues, rather, that trance and various forms of everyday distraction are quite distinctly different phenomena."
Literary Evidence for the Cultural Development of a Theory of Mind
Gordon, Andrew and Anish Nair. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 2003, July 7-12. + Show Summary
The term Theory of Mind is used within the cognitive sciences to refer to the abilities that people have to reason about their own mental states and the mental states of others. An important question is whether these abilities are culturally acquired or innate to our species. This paper outlines the argument that the mental models that serve as the basis for Theory of Mind abilities are the product of cultural development. To support this thesis, we present evidence gathered from the large-scale automated analysis of text corpora. We show that the Freudian conception of a subconscious desire is a relatively modern addition to our culturally shared Theory of Mind, as evidenced by a shift in the way these ideas appeared in 19th and 20th century English language novels.
Subjective Reality: "The Hard Question"
Hughes, Owen. Christian Spirituality and Science, 2013, Vol. 9 (1). + Show Summary
The manner in which the 100 billion or so neurons in the human brain work together to give us the rich subjective of conscious experience has been referred to as the "hard question". This paper seeks to explore this question: exposing some of its difficult dimensions as well as noting and critiquing various attempts to probe and explain its mysteries. The views of some prominent Christian scholars, such as Donald McKay and Charles Taliaferro, conclude this analysis.
"Act Promptly, Make Your God Happy" Representation and Rhetorical Relations in Natural Language Generation
Hundleby, Margaret N. Workshop On Intentionality And Structure In Discource Relations, 2002, 44-47. + Show Summary
The Sumerian proverb in the title is evoked by Julian Jaynes as he documents the laborious process of coming to consciousness. This activity is the cognitive labor that enables us to arrive at a question about the precise relationship between two types of knowledge, or ask if "rhetorical relations [are] the realizations of intentions, or should ... be discarded as simply a misconstrual of intentions proper?"
Truth, Telling the Truth, and Being Truthful Affect, Nonverbal Communication, and the Constitution of Ethical Relationship
Harmon, Michael M. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 2011, 33: 509-529. + Show Summary
This article links Oliver Sacks's examination of receptive (or global) aphasia with Julian Jaynes's hypothesis concerning the origin of reflective consciousness to clarify the role of nonverbal communication in the constitution of ethical relationships. The vehicle for explicating that linkage is a recent play by Orion White, The Girl Who Changed into a Dog. Commentary on selected scenes from the play suggests a conception of ethics based on the following assumptions: (1) Ethics is fundamentally relational rather than principled; (2) owing to its relational character, ethical action is determined by the particularities of the contexts as understood by the actors involved in them; (3) spoken language provides a better medium than written language for developing and sustaining these ethical relationships; (4) the affective dimensions of spoken utterances are no less important than their cognitive dimensions for "truthfully" depicting those contexts; (5) the affective dimensions of spoken utterances are influenced in crucial ways by nonverbal signals and responses—including both tone of voice and body language—in addition to their verbal content; (6) the primary ethical obligation of people in relationship is to assist one another in creating situationally appropriate and emotionally satisfying courses of action; and (7) the ability to feel shame, although initially more painful than the guilt people feel on hearing judgments that they have violated principles, is an essential requirement for leading an ethical life.
Claude Levi-Strauss Reconsidered: Cognitive Science, Epistemology, and the (Not So Savage) Algebraic Mind
Haskell, Robert E. Cognitive Semiotics, 2008, 3: 65-90. + Show Summary
Reconsidering Levi-Strauss' work - on the eve of his 100th year of life - that the structure of cognition is algebraic and analogical as indicated by his analysis of preliterate myths, along with a brief review and analysis of mathematics and cognition, structuralism, and epistemology, the paper suggests that critics of his work (a) were only partially correct, (b) approached his material from an inappropriate epistemology, and (c) while, in application his structural method is problematic, (d) being a pioneer his value is to have posited a novel conceptualization that merits further research. Finally, (e) based on related findings, it is suggested that his notion of an algebraic/analogical mind, which allowed him to illustrate a novel mathematical framework in his structuralist project, can be modeled and tested.
An Invigorating Dialogue on Consciousness
Jarva, Vuokko. Journal of Futures Studies, 2011, 16 (1): 177-188. + Show Summary
There was an energetic dialogue on consciousness on the World Futures Studies Federation list from November 2010 until January 2011. More than thirty members participated, and the amount (number) of messages was close to 250. Many useful references were shared. I volunteered to compile a dialogue article, which is still in progress. This essay drafts some basic traits and themes of this unique dialogue among futures researchers. The dialogue extended upon two axes: the positioning
of consciousness in relation to brain, body, living beings and the world, and the evolution of the consciousness.
Poetry as Right-Hemispheric Language
Kane, Julie. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2004, 11 (5-6): 21-59. + Show Summary
Though the brain's left hemisphere is commonly believed to be the "seat of language," the right hemisphere processes a number of subtle linguistic functions. This paper will argue that the degree of right-hemispheric involvement in language is what differentiates "poetic" or "literary" from "referential" or "technical" speech. It will suggest that the absence of left- hemispheric dominance for language in the brains of preliterate and illiterate persons may explain why those populations exhibit so-called "magical" thinking rich in right-hemispheric features. Finally, it will link studies demonstrating high rates of mania and hypomania among poets (but not other types of writers or creative artists) to other studies observing a temporary shift from left- to right-hemispheric dominance for language during the manic phase, suggesting that overactivation of these brain regions may underlie the compulsion to write poetry.
Free Will Debates: Simple Experiments Are Not So Simple
Klemm, W.R. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 2010, 6 (6): 47-65. + Show Summary
The notion that free will is an illusion has achieved such wide acceptance among philosophers and neuroscientists that it seems to be acquiring the status of dogma. Nonetheless, research in this area continues, and this review offers a new analysis of the design limitations and data interpretations of free-will experiments. This review presents 12 categories of questionable conclusions that some scholars use to promote the idea that free will is an illusion. The next generation of less
ambiguous experiments is proposed.
"Between the Dream and Reality": Divination in the Novels of Cormac McCarthy (thesis)
Kottage, Robert A., Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2013, Paper 2310. + Show Summary
Divination is a trope Cormac McCarthy employs time and again in his work. Augury, haruspicy, cartomancy, voodoo, sortition and oneiromancy all take their places in the texts, overtly or otherwise, as well as divination by bloodshed (a practice so ubiquitous as to have no formal name). But mantic practices which aim at an understanding of the divine mind prove problematic in a universe that often appears godless - or worse. My thesis uses divination as the starting point for a close reading of each of McCarthy's novels. Research into Babylonian, Greek, Roman and African soothsaying practices is included, as well as the insights of a number of McCarthy scholars. But the work of extra- literary scholars - philologists, Jungian psychologists, cultural anthropologists and religious historians whose works explore the origins of human violence and the spiritual impulse - is also invoked to shed light on McCarthy's evolving perspective.
Freud's Illusion: New Approaches to Intractable Issues
Kronemyer, David E. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2011, 21 (4): 249-275. + Show Summary
In his later theological work The Future of an Illusion, Freud (1927/1961) makes provocative suggestions about the psychological significance of religious ideas. Freud begins by analyzing their meaning in the lives of particular individuals. He then extrapolates to a critique of their effect on human civilization. Religion originally evolved in order to explain difficult concepts such as death and fate. It quickly outgrew its purely theological dimensions and became a social regulator by coercing compliance with a set of cultural norms. The purpose of this article is not to evaluate whether Freud was right, that is, if religion in fact is an illusion. Rather, using concepts derived from current work in analytical theology, it examines the internal logic of Freud's analysis and some of the assumptions he made to reach this conclusion. Despite his theoretical insights, much of Freud's reasoning is invalid and many of his premises are questionable. Freud adopts assertions without explaining them and does not offer much in the way of deductive or inferential support for his argument. This article advocates an epistemological approach to understanding Freud's use of terms such as "wishes" and "illusions." Adopting this perspective uncovers tacit presuppositions underlying his theory about the origins of religious belief and its relationship to culture and society, and clarifies the conceptual links holding it together.
Binary Thinking, Hope, and Realistic Expectations in Communication with Cancer Patients
Lowenstein, J., in A. Surbone, M. Zwitter, M. Rajer, and R. Stiefel (eds.), New Challenges in Communication with Cancer Patients, 2013, 247-252. + Show Summary
Sitting for many years on the ethics committee of our medical center, I have come to recognize that when the details of a complex ethical issue are reviewed, examined from different perspectives, and discussed - i.e., "slowed down" - the analog appearance of the process often breaks down to reveal the digital, yes/no nature of our judgments.
What Color Is the Sky on Your Planet? A Review of Investigations in Behavioral Epistemology
Malone, John C., Maria E.A. Armento, Stephanie T. Epps. Behavior and Philosophy, 2003, 31: 47-61. + Show Excerpt
"Dennett wants consciousness as the core of the mind, internal states and channels and something distributed to different parts of the brain ... a controller of
things. Smith notes that its manner of control is left unspecified. Julian Jaynes famously proposed that consciousness appeared only 4,000 years ago with the
dawning of messages flowing between the two hemispheres, originally as the voices of gods."
Consciousness, Mental Imagery, and Action
Marks, D.F. British Journal of Psychology, 1999, 90 (4): 567-585. + Show Summary
This article is founded on the bold claim that mental imagery is a basic building block of all consciousness. Conscious mental imagery is reported in association with waking, dreaming and intermediate states of consciousness. Meta-cognitive theory claims that the individual may be treated as an imperfect measuring device of his or her own consciousness. This is supported by the evidence on the psychological correlates of imagery vividness reported using the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ) (Marks, 1973). Meta-analysis of 150 studies has demonstrated high levels of reliability, content validity and criterion validity (McKelvie, 1995 a, b). This analysis demonstrates that under controlled conditions, verbal reports provide reliable and valid measures of conscious experience. The activity cycle theory of conscious imagery claims that a primary function of consciousness is the mental rehearsal of adaptive, goal-directed action through the experimental manipulation of perceptual-motor imagery. As predicted by this theory, the meta-analysis shows that the vividness of conscious mental imagery is strongly associated with precisely those performances most likely to benefit from the use of perceptual-motor imagery and mental practice. The theory helps to explain the existence and function of conscious experience.
Auditory Hallucinations: Psychotic Symptom or Dissociative Experience?
Moskowitz, Andrew. Journal of Psychological Trauma, 2008, 6 (2-3): 35-63. + Show Summary
While auditory hallucinations are considered a core psychotic symptom, central to the diagnosis of schizophrenia, it has long been recognized that persons who are not psychotic may also hear voices. There is an entrenched clinical belief that distinctions can be made between these groups, typically, on the basis of the perceived location or the 'third-person' perspective of the voices. While it is generally believed that such characteristics of voices have significant clinical implications, and are important in the differential diagnosis between dissociative and psychotic disorders, there is no research evidence in support of this. Voices heard by persons diagnosed schizophrenic appear to be indistinguishable, on the basis of their experienced characteristics, from voices heard by persons with dissociative disorders or by persons with no mental disorder at all. On this and other bases outlined in this article, we argue that hearing voices should be considered a dissociative experience, which under some conditions may have pathological consequences. In other words, we believe that, while voices may occur in the context of a psychotic disorder, they should not be considered a psychotic symptom.
The idea of the self plays a pivotal role in human life. The most common way of conceptualizing the self may be called the free-floating or separative self. This amounts to treating the self as something away from the web of life and as something in need of protection and aggrandizement. Another major characteristic of the free-floating self is the belief in free will. There have been many studies questioning the empirical validity of free will, and this takes cudgels against the free-floating self-conception also. Even though some traits associated with this kind of self-conception might have had evolutionary advantages, it is not difficult to see that the moorings of many human problems can be traced to the separative self-conception. Therefore, efforts need to be made to develop an alternate way of understanding the self. It is contended in this chapter that the conception of the free-floating self is primarily a case of gut feeling of certainty and our present environment is conducive to overcome this inveterate way of understanding ourselves.
Personality and Consciousness: A Theoretical Essay
Natsoulas, Thomas. Cognition and Brain Theory, 1984, 7 (2): 135-166. + Show Summary
Introduces a concept of conscious personality that refers to the distinctive, subjective organization of a person's personal consciousness. Consciousness is discussed in relation to the ability to identify with one's mental life, categorize mental episodes, relate segments of this mental life in a maximally meaningful way, relate mental episodes to their causes and effects, and use these contents to acquire knowledge. The nature of the basic ingredients of personal consciousness is considered in relation to H. A. Murray's (1936, 1938) description of regnant processes, and differing views on the property of consciousness are reviewed. The depreciation of consciousness in modern psychology is examined, with particular reference to the position of Julian Jaynes (1976).
Structures of Corporate Consciousness
Neville, Bernie. Integrative Explorations Journal, 2003. + Show Excerpt
"Julian Jaynes developed the notion that humans have been unconscious for most of their history, and that most of our experience is still unconscious. If this is observable of individual experience, it is even more apparent in collective behavior, in corporations and elsewhere. Kieran Egan writes of somatic understanding, sharing Gebser's view that before ever we "think" about our experience, we prehend it through our physical, organic sense of the worldx. Collectively, we feel the rhythms of nature "in our bones" and respond to them without reflection. In the same way in our institutional memberships we tune in to the rhythms of a group we belong to. Edward Hall called attention to the evidence of synchrony in cohesive groups. It seems that people quite unconsciously act "in sync" with others in their group - in gesture, speech rhythms, biological cycles and so on, so that the group as a whole may be performing a dance of which the individuals are unaware. The capacity for synchrony is rooted in the biology of our archaic consciousness. When it is frustrated, as it is by corporate routines or assembly lines that are "out of sync" with the human rhythms of the group, both satisfaction and productivity are impaired."
Hallucinations, An Existential Crisis?
Nikolova, Jennifer Kanary. Metaverse Creativity, 2011, 1 (2): 197-206. + Show Summary
Having hallucinations is often seen as one of the key symptoms of mental health problems, in particular to those of schizophrenia. In the DSM-IV, hallucinations are defined as follows: 'A sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception, but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ'. But what is a true perception? And how do we know whether there really is no external stimulation? With people so unanimously convinced that what they are going through is not illness, but an awakening to the nature of reality. And with more and more documentaries being created about the illusionary nature of our reality, we might want to take a closer look at the descriptions of people who suffer from what is known as a reality disorder. We might think about how this might inform us about the nature of reality in a way that would diminish the existing stigma that surrounds psychosis and schizophrenia. We might even wonder whether the concept of hallucination has the right to exist.
Umbelini: The Voice of the Unconscious
Norris, Penny. Psychological Perspectives: A Quarterly Journal of Jungian Thought, 2003, 45 (1): 14-33. + Show Excerpt
"Umbelini is an African word for intestine. In the culture of the amaXhosa, a branch of the Nguni nation (which includes the amaZulu), the intestine is the place where the gods speak to us - and we hear their voices, feel their grip, and know the terror of their power in our guts. In the psychological terminology of Jung, this umbelini experience might be called the voice of the unconscious. The culture of the amaXhosa people form the Eastern Province of South Africa was, up to a few decades ago, exclusively an oral tradition. Kings, praise-poets (the king's poets), families, witchdoctors, and other individuals handed down education, history, and customs from generation to generation. Human behavior, religion, and ethics were preserved and immortalized in music through epic speech-songs. The amaXhosa have a saying that music is life - and, in this sense, it is."
The Neuropsychology of Hallucinations
Pavlovic, D.M. and A.M. Pavlovic. Archives of Biological Sciences, 2011, 63 (1): 43-48. + Show Excerpt
"An interesting hypothesis is posed by Julian Jaynes (1976) on the "bicameral brain" where one hemisphere (right) gives orders and the other (left) listens and
executes orders. This Latin term means "consisting of two chambers" and is used in contemporary language for two legislative or parliamentary chambers. According to the bicameral theory, up to around 1000 BC, humans used the right hemisphere to process the supernatural voices of "gods" and "demons" (actually hallucinations), and the left one to produce speech. People of that era were not self-conscious and could not, for example, distinguish between the living and the dead, hence the cult of ancestors, embalming and the like. The collapse of bicameralism occurred during the second millennium BC, due to the great migrations and growing social complexity
that required changes in the human mind towards a greater flexibility, introspection and abstraction. Societies that did not evolve in this direction disappeared
(the ancient Maya, the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt and others). In schizophrenia, the brain processes are again bicameral. These patients experience auditory hallucinations as commands in the same way the ancient people, according to the theory of bicameralism, received "God's" commandments.Studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia indeed have reduced cerebral lateralization. Results are still controversial. The latest studies have shown bilateral activation of Broca's area instead of only left side activation that brings new life to the theory of mind bicameralism (Weiss et al., 2006). The reduction of lateralization even correlated with
the intensity of hallucinations. Another assumption is that in patients lacking adequate ACC-left upper temporal lobe connection there is an erroneous impression
that inner speech has an external source."
Incremental Improvement of Dichotic Left Ear Accuracy and Toe Gnosis Between 9 and 10 Years of Age: Implications for Maturation of a Portion of the Corpus Callosum and of the Sense of Self
Persinger, M.A., J.A. Moulden, P.M. Richards. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain, and Cognition, 1999, 4 (4): 379-387. + Show Summary
Analyses of the data from 212 boys and girls, aged 7-14 years, demonstrated a relatively abrupt and permanent decrease in the numbers of errors for dichotic (left ear) word listening and for toe gnosis after the ninth year. This pattern was not observed for right ear errors, finger gnosis, or indices of finger and foot agility. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the final differentiation of the paracentral lobules and adjacent corpus callosum by the most distal portions of the Anterior Cerebral Artery occurs around 9 or 10 years of age. Implications for the development of the sense of self, enhanced apprehension, and "the sense of a presence" are discussed.
Palmer, Anthony J. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2002. + Show Excerpt
"The question, 'Why do humans value music?' is stimulating and of more than philosophical importance. The answer lies at the deepest recesses of human existence and should affect the way music is viewed as a subject for study in the public schools. Yet, the question is not easily answered. I've been studying the matter since I started teaching forty years ago and I'm barely at a stage where I have a small inkling. Perhaps that is my shortcoming. Neverthless, I'll try to give my view now, realizing that it can be no more than some conjectures, a postulation or two, some guessing that is hopefully cogent and intelligent, and perhaps even an insight that may be further realized in the process of writing this answer."
Current studies suggest that young children with make-believe companions tend to be uncommonly bright, articulate, and cooperate.
Presence, Poetry and the Collaborative Right Hemisphere
Platt, Carole Brooks. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2007, 14 (3): 36-53. + Show Excerpt
"Persinger and Makarec considered their finding similar to Julian Jaynes' (1976) notion that the right or 'god-side' of the pre-literate bicameral mind re-emerged in the modern era '[d]uring periods when consciousness is significantly altered, such as during literary or musical creativity' (p. 223). Secular-minded individuals would say 'presence, entity, or force', where religious people would identify a 'spirit,
angel, or culture-specific god' (ibid.). Persinger and Makarec further stated that 'people who have emphasized writing and the pursuit of the understanding of the self through verbal, ruminative processing, have
been particularly prone to the feeling of a presence' (p. 223). The study's authors further hypothesized that a 'continuum of temporal lobe lability' exists, with sufferers of limbic (complete/partial) epilepsy
at the extreme end, highly creative individuals in the middle, and average people gradated towards the extreme of not being able to express emotions at all.
Emerging selves: Representational Foundations of Subjectivity
Prinz, Wolfgang. Consciousness and Cognition, 2003, 12 (4): 515-528. + Show Summary
A hypothetical evolutionary scenario is offered meant to account for the emergence of mental selves. According to the scenario, mental selves are constructed to solve a source-attribution problem. They emerge when internally generated mental contents (e.g., thoughts and goals) are treated like messages arising from external personal sources. As a result, mental contents becomes attributed to the self as an internal personal source. According to this view, subjectivity is construed outward-in, that is, one's own mental self is derived from, and is secondary to, the mental selves perceived in others. The social construction of subjectivity and selfhood relies on, and is maintained in, various discourses on subjectivity.
The Descent of Humanity: The Biological Roots of Human Consciousness, Culture and History
Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N. M. Biosemiotics, 2013, 8: 53-84. + Show Summary
The notion of species-specific modelling allows us to construct taxonomies of mental models, based on the concept of qualia, such as posing 'invariant requests to neural processes', supporting networks of which are subject to selective pressures. The selection is based on their respective capacity to differently adapt to behaviour patterns, which neural networks control. For extremely premature births, thanks to foetalization, in Homo sapiens sapiens, specific neural groups are offered for selection in early critical periods of development and in a social environment. As a consequence, far beyond any other primate, new cognitive devices are developed, which lead to a high level of abstract thinking. Therefore, the reproposition of the cultural-historical psychology is important. Foetalization and education are the two pillars that give rise to the human being's ability to accumulate a perceivable and collective knowledge, which is precluded to other animal cultures. These are the roots both of consciousness and of the specific mechanisms that give rise to transmissibility and variability and adaptability of the human cultures. The key to this evolutionary quantum leap is the advent of a new class of replicators: memes, defined as informational patterns of a signic nature with a metaphorical, relational organization; memes are the basic framework in the structure of personality both in individuals and in social groups.
Romme, Marius A.J. and Alexandre D.M.A.C. Escher. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1989, 15 (2): 209-216. + Show Summary
An experiment is described in which people with auditory hallucinations were brought into contact with each other. On an evening television talk show, a patient - diagnosed several times as having schizophrenia - talked about her voices. Four hundred and fifty people who also were hearing voices readed to the program by telephone. A questionnaire was sent to those who responded to the television program in order to get more information about their way of coping with the vocies. From those who filled out the questionnaire, 20 people were selected who explained their experiences in a clear way. A meeting for people hearing voices was organized, and the 20 persons were invited to become the speakers. In this article the experiences described by the participants are reported as well as the many ways in which they coped with these experiences.
The Retrieval of Memory in Early Infancy
Rovee-Collier, Carolyn K. and Jeffrey W. Fagen. Advances in Infancy Research, 1981, 1: 225-254. + Show Summary
Describes a learning analysis approach to the study of infant memory and the research it has inspired. The retrieval of memory and factors that promote retention is focused on, and forgetting as a retrieval failure rather than a memory deficit is discussed. Evidence is provided for a mechanism by which infants demonstrate the cumulative effects of prior experiences and by which early experiences may influence later behavior. It is argued that infants retrieve memories of past events through encounters with contextual cues that were previously noticed. It is demonstrated that manipulation of these cues can alleviate forgetting after quite lengthy retention intervals. Findings challenge interpretations that presume loss of information from storage and confirm the suggestion of B. A. Campbell and Julian Jaynes that reinstatement is a potent mechanism by which the effects of early experiences continue to influence behavior after lengthy time periods.
Why Neanderthals Hate Poetry: A Critical Notice of Steven Mithen's The Prehistory of Mind
Sarnecki, J. and M. Sponheimer. Philosophical Psychology, 2002, 15 (2): 173-184. + Show Summary
The significance of historical advances in human development has been widely debated within cognitive science. Steven Mithen's recent book, The prehistory of mind (London: Thames & Hudson, 1996), presents an archeologist's attempt to explain the details of cognitive development within the framework of modern anthropology and cognitive psychology. We argue that Mithen's attempt fails for a number of different reasons. The relationship between the archeological evidence he considers and his conclusions is problematic. We maintain that it is difficult to draw biological conclusions from strictly behavioral artifactual evidence. To buttress his claims, Mithen borrows heavily from the very cognitive science literature to which he hopes to contribute. As a consequence, his analysis of the archeological evidence cannot promote a particular cognitive theory, since his interpretation is only as strong as those theories from which he borrows. We are also concerned that the specific details of Mithen's program are equally problematic. Mithen's claim that modular intelligences did not exist outside of hominid evolution is likely false and unwarranted. As a consequence, we argue that the central component of his claim that the uniquely human feature of our development, the move from modular to fluid minds, depends on poorly defined distinctions between a wide range of mental processes. Whether we can accept Mithen's characterization of these claims will depend, we argue, on how he chooses to clarify these terms. We suggest that the various choices will be difficult to reconcile with his theory. Moreover, we suggest that the phenomena that Mithen hopes to explain in human development cannot be explained strictly in terms of analogical reasoning. We nevertheless find Mithen's attempt at answering these questions to be both a constructive and fascinating foray into what is an under-explored topic.
Consciousness Is Nothing But A Word
Schlinger, Henry D. Skeptic, 2008, 13 (4). + Show Excerpt
"In 1991, Daniel Dennett published his tome, Consciousness Explained. Yet, ten years later he penned an article titled "Are We Explaining Consciousness Yet?" If he had to ask the question, the answer seems obvious. English-speaking philosophers and psychologists have been trying to understand consciousness at least since John Locke introduced the word into the English language in the 17th century. But despite the best efforts of those who've thrown their hats into the ring, we haven't made much progress. Obviously, a different approach is needed. In my view, we aren't explaining consciousness for at least two reasons. First, we are trying to reduce the problem to brain processes. For the past decade or so, many have argued that the brain gives rise to consciousness. Some have set their sights on finding its so-called neural correlates, trying to explain consciousness, as the late Francis Crick described it, in terms of the "interactions of nerve cells ... and the molecules associated with them." Referring to consciousness as "the major unsolved problem in biology," Crick famously observed: "'You,' your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules. "No more than"? Your joys, sorrows, memories, ambitions and sense of personal identity and free will are more than the behavior of your nerve cells, just as a Seurat painting is more than the thousands of points of paint on the canvas. They are also your behavior and the activity of your peripheral nervous system all in a rich and fluid context with a long and immensely complex personal history. Crick is obviously not alone in believing that reductionism will solve the problem of consciousness. Philosopher David Chalmers wrote, "The search for neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) is arguably the cornerstone in the recent resurgence of the science of consciousness." And sophisticated technologies seem to offer hope for such beliefs. I, for one, am skeptical. Here's why."
Re-Reading The Problem of Consciousness
Schneebaum, Rachel E. Senior Thesis. Williams College, 2009, May 25. + Show Summary
Most of the philosophical and scientific theorizing surrounding consciousness seems to be rooted in a particular set of intuitions - the same intuitions that led Descartes to draw a distinction between the mind and the body, and the same intuitions that gave us a rich canon of science fiction and philosophy of mind scenarios involving body swapping and brains in vats. These are the intuitions that suggest that there is something epistemically and ontologically special about the me-ness of my own experiences, something distinct from a scientific explanation of the world. The philosophical and empirical work on consciousness is full of arguments and thought experiments that appeal to this sort of intuition, to the extent that it is difficult if not impossible to think about consciousness at all without invoking similar assumptions. Many would argue that this is no accident, that the seemingly inescapable prevalence of our intuitions demonstrates something fundamental about the way things are.
Dynamic Psychiatry and the Treatment of Anorexia Psychosis
Silver, Ann-Louise S. and Janice White. Journal of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 2011, 39 (1): 63-76. + Show Summary
Dynamic psychotherapy of psychosis works through gradually diminishing terror, replacing this with a clearer and shared understanding of the patient's life history, its traumas and its strengths. It is diametrically opposed to our current push for efficiency and an assumption of an underlying brain disorder that responds to our current medications. Over the course of a long treatment, this patient became a scholar of psychoanalytic contributions to understanding psychosis and is now a philosopher of this field, developing an understanding of anorexia psychosis. She draws on the writings of Freud, Bion, Lacan, and Julian Jaynes, placing the core of psychosis not in primary process but in a preceding, non-self phase of development. She relates this individual development to the history of human development.
Something from Nothing: Seeking a Sense of Self
Strate, Lance ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 2003, 60. + Show Excerpt
"Julian Jaynes (1976) posited that theory of mind was a fairly recent evolutionary development. No doubt, our ancestors could have survived without it, as have other forms of life . Perhaps the Neanderthals lacked it, depending instead on skills such as memory and visualization . Perhaps they disappeared because their mind-blindness made them vulnerable to our own ancestors. It is possible that the development of theory of mind led to
the creative explosion of art and ritual that occurred sometime between twenty and thirty thousand years ago (Pfeiffer, 1982), or it may be that it developed much earlier among our evolutionary ancestors (Dunbar, 1996) .
Whenever it appeared, theory of mind would have tremendous survival value, as it leads us to make inferences about the mental states of others, and thereby predict their behavior ; applied to the natural environment as anthropomorphism, it even is an efficient form of theory-building, and therefore would be favored by natural selection (Baron-Cohen, 1995)."
Religion: Is It All In Your Head?
Talan, Jamie. Psychology Today, 1998, 31 (2): 9. + Show Summary
Focuses on the theory of Vilayanur Ramashandran of the University of California in San Diego that somewhere in the brain's temporal lobes there may be neural circuitry for religious experience. Basis of his theory; experiment supporting his theory; implication of his theory about religious experience.
What Do Invisible Friends Know? Imaginary Companions, God, and Theory of Mind
Wigger, J. Bradley, Katrina Paxson & Lacey Ryan. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2013, 23 (1). + Show Summary
Theory of mind (ToM) research has been carried out in relation to a variety of human and nonhuman agents such as parents, friends, God, Mayan forest spirits, and animals. The present study adds a new agent to the list - the imaginary/invisible friend. Three types of ToM tasks were administered to 36 children, ages 2 to 8, who had invisible friends at the time of the tasks: occluded picture, background knowledge, and surprising contents tasks. The knowledge attributed to imaginary companions was compared to the knowledge attributed to God, as well as to a human and to a dog. Results showed that younger children tended to attribute knowledge to all agents, including imaginary friends. Older children treated God differently from all other agents, but the invisible friend was also treated differently from the human and the dog. Implications regarding cognitive development and anthropomorphism are considered, as well as for the in-between character of invisible friends.
Inner Speech as a Language: A Saussurean Inquiry
Wiley, Norbert. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 2006, 36 (3): 319-341. + Show Excerpt
"People often talk silently to themselves, engaging in what is called inner speech, internal conversation, inner dialogue, self talk and so on. This seems to be an inherent characteristic of human beings, commented on as early as Plato (Theaetetus 189e-190a and Sophist 263e), who regarded thought as inner speech. The American pragmatists thought the inner dialogue was the defining feature of the self (Archer 2003, pp. 53-92). For them the self is an internal community or network, communicating within itself in a field of meaning. The idea that ordinary language is the language of thought however is not the only linquistic theory of thought. Since Saint Augustine there has been the idea that thought is itself a language of pure abstractions. This 'mental language' as it was called differs from ordinary language by consisting solely of meanings, i.e. as signifieds without signifiers to use Saussure’s language (Ashworth 2003). This hypothesis peaked in the writings of William of Occam and declined when Hobbes introduced a purely computational, hedonistic theory of thought (Normore 2005)."
The Fragility of Identity, and the Tenacity of the Processes, in Psychotherapy
Wilkinson, Heward. International Journal of Psychotherapy, November 2001, Vol. 6 (1): 253. + Show Summary
This issue focuses on the themes of certainty and doubt, fragility and tenacious identity, in the psychotherapeutic process. Newman's paper explores some central tensions in the relation between consciousness and unconsciousness. Rowan offers a masterly account of what he plausibly claims are established salient features of the psychotherapeutic process, in terms of the analogy of alchemy. Balick's account of the 7th UKCP Professional Conference evokes the tensions activated by the interface between neuro-science and psychotherapy. And Tan and Zhong face us with the challenge of a communally and certainty based method, in relation to some antisocial sexual patterns, which appears to be more effective than more cautious established 'Western' approaches.
Editorial: To Know or Not to Know: Science, Beliefs, and Values in Psychotherapy
Wilkinson, Heward. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 2000, Vol. 5 (2): 93-102. + Show Summary
This Editorial links the papers together in terms of how they relate to a debate/dialogue between a 'belief-free' and 'experimental' model of the values and beliefs of psychotherapy, and an integrationist, assimilative one. Through exploration of the papers, gradually the two positions come together in a synthesis, and the position of psychotherapy is portrayed as a phenomenological one, a creatively self-generating 'idea' in Cardinal Newman's sense, though one which can encompass - but not be confined to - the position of 'positive science', with its focus on individual fact. The Editorial ends with a rectification of the injustice to Heidegger in the Editorial of July 1999, where it was claimed he was a lifelong Nazi, a claim now withdrawn in the light of Julian Young's book on Heidegger, Philosophy and Nazism.
How to be Bicameral: Reading William Connolly's Pluralism with Whitehead and Deleuze
Williams, James. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 2008, 10 (2): 140-155. + Show Summary
This article argues that the concept of bicameralism is central to William Connolly's pluralism. The concept is analysed in terms of its roots in political bicameralism, in the bicameral mind and in organic bicameralism in order to show its richness and its capacity to provide positive answers to a series of standard criticisms of pluralism. Two more persistent critical problems are presented in the problem of evil (can we afford to be open to other political positions if they are evil?) and in the problem of the generation of paradoxes (does pluralism depend on adopting perniciously paradoxical positions?). These questions are answered by drawing connections from Connolly's work to Alfred North Whitehead's definition of evil and to Gilles Deleuze's work on paradox.
Woods, Angela. Journal of Mental Health, 2013, Vol. 22 (3): 263-270. + Show Summary
Who, or what, is 'the voice-hearer'? Minimally, the term refers to someone who hears a voice or utterance in the absence of any speaker; someone who, in psychiatric parlance, would be said to have experienced auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). In the case of neuropsychological research, this definition is a clear and uncontentious, albeit cumbersome, synonym for the scientific shorthand AVH+. But there are other contexts - interpersonal, political, clinical - in which the statement 'I am a voice-hearer' has a deeper and more complex meaning. The purpose of this paper is to offer what might loosely be called a 'thick description' (Geertz, 1973) of the figure of 'the voice-hearer.' I aim to show how, in high-income countries in the late twentieth century, 'the voice-hearer' emerged as a culturally meaningful and politically charged identity enacted through a specific set of narrative practices. Complementing texts such as Lisa Blackman's powerful study of the 'techniques of the hallucinatory self' (Blackman, 2001), and Ian Hacking's genealogical exploration of multiple personality (Hacking, 1995), this paper seeks to understand 'the voice-hearer' as a cultural resource that is used by people to articulate and share specific experiences, values and viewpoints. My use of quotation marks is intended to remind the reader that 'the voice-hearer' refers not to any individual, but to a figure, symbol, or category of identity. With this focus in mind, my analysis concentrates on a range of prominent texts (life narratives, research papers, videos and blogs) produced by leading figures in the Hearing Voices and broader c/s/x (consumer/survivor/ex-patient) movements.
A World Without Gods: This Troy Could Have Done with Some Divine Intervention The Evening Standard, May 13, 2004. (movie review) + Show Excerpt
"In his seminal work The Origin of Consciousness and the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, Julian Jaynes theorised that when the events that the Homeric Iliad describes took place, the ancient Greeks literally heard the voices of their gods. Like schizophrenics, these bronze-age peoples had a tenuous grasp on the thinking 'I' most of us take for granted; so, when the voices spoke to them in commanding tones, they obeyed. It's a bold theory, and helps to explain the particular way in which the ancient Greeks thought their deities were involved in initiating and partially controlling their actions. In Troy, Wolfgang Petersen's epic recreation of The Iliad, the voices are out of the frame, and so are the gods. The director eschewed the divine origin and control of the Trojan war on the grounds that a modern audience would have been unable to suspend disbelief in it. If only he had read Jaynes - or just about any competent authority - Petersen could have found a way of suggesting the mental world of the period, without recourse to whitegirt hard bodies lobbing golden apples around the set. They spent $175 million making this flick: they could have at least put a classicist on the payroll. Instead we get The Iliad for agnostics, and peopled by them as well."