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The *K'ôg 'To Dead Father' Hypothesis

Michael Carr
Paper presented at the 18th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, August 27-29 1985, Bangkok.

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Why does Chinese käo < *k'ôg 'dead father; think' violate the linguistic universal of avoiding 'die; death' words? The postulated answer is that *k'ôg anciently meant 'to dead father', i.e., 'to communicate with the spirit of one's dead father'. This hypothesis unifies the diverse 'dead father; father; old age; examine; think; complete; personal name; strike; etc.' meanings of *k'ôg ; and it resolves many textual misreadings ... *k'ôg can be literally understood as 'do the "to to dead father" ceremony', rather than trying to interpret this as 'achievement', 'fulfillment, 'answer', 'fame', or 'ritual vessel'. Evidence suggests that *k'ôg was the name of an ancestral sacrifice which involved divination, 'striking' bells to beckon spirits, drinking sacrificial wine, and actual/imagined spiritual communication.