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Supporting Evidence: New Research
Supporting Jaynes' Bicameral Mind Theory

Auditory and Visual Hallucinations in Normal (Non-Psychotic) Adults

Supporting Evidence > Auditory and Visual Hallucinations in Normal (Non-Psychotic) Adults

In his theory, Julian Jaynes describes the role hallucinations played in an earlier mentality, prior to the development of subjective consciousness. He predicted that hallucinations were more common in the normal population than was known at the time, and this has been confirmed in literally hundreds of studies over the past three decades. Below is a small sample of research supporting this aspect of Jaynes's theory.

Examining the Continuum Model of Auditory Hallucinations: A Review of Cognitive Mechanisms
Badcock, Johanna C. and Kenneth Hugdahl. Hallucinations, 2012, Part 3, 317–328.

Visual Hallucinations and Sensory Delusions in the Elderly
Berrios, G. E., and P. Brook. British Journal of Psychiatry, June 1984, 144, 662–664.

Visions For All: People who Report Vivid Religious Experiences May Hold Clues to Nonpsychotic Hallucinations
Bower, Bruce. Science News, April 2012, 181 (7): 22–25.

Hallucinatory Experiences in Extreme-Altitude Climbers
Brugger, Peter, Marianne Regard, Theodor Landis, and Oswald Oelz. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology, Jan. 1999, 12 (1): 67–71.

Visual and Auditory Hallucinations in A Psychologically Normal Woman
Chedru, F., F. Feldman, A. Ameri, J. Sales, and M. Roth. Lancet, Sept. 28 1996, 348 (9031): 896.

The Origins of Voices: Links Between Life History and Voice Hearing in a Survey of 100 Cases
Corstens, Dirk and Eleanor Longden. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches, Special Issue: Voices in a Positive Light, 2013, 5 (3).

Auditory and Visual Hallucinations in University Students
Feelgood, S. R. and A. J. Rantzen. Personality and Individual Differences, 1994, 17 (2): 293–296.

Hallucinatory Experiences at High Altitude
Garrido, Eduardo, Casimiro Javierre, Josep L. Ventura, and Ramon Segura. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology, April 2000, 13 (2): 148–148.

Auditory Hallucinations Following Near-Death Experiences
Greyson, B. and M.B. Liester. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2004, 44: 320–336.

Hallucinations Following the Loss of a Spouse: Common and Normal Events Among the Elderly
Grimby, Agneta. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 1998, 4 (1): 65–74.

Hallucinatory Experiences in Non-Clinical Populations
Hill, Katy and David E.J. Linden. In Renaud Jardi, et al (eds.), The Neuroscience of Hallucinations (Springer, 2013, 21–41).

A Study of Manifestations of Hallucinations in a Non-Psychiatric Population of Caribbean Descent
Izquierdo, A. M. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Dec. 2000, 61(5–B): 2764.

Commentary Hallucination in the Elderly: Three Case Reports
Kobayashi, T., S. Kato, T. Osawa, and K. Shioda. Psychogeriatrics, September 2004, 4 (3): 96–101(6).

The Characteristic Features of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Clinical and Nonclinical Groups: State-of-the-Art Overview and Future Directions
Larøi, Frank, Iris E. Sommer, Jan Dirk Blom, Charles Fernyhough, Dominic H. ffytche, Kenneth Hugdahl, Louise C. Johns, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Antonio Preti, Andrea Raballo, Christina W. Slotema, Massoud Stephane, and Flavie Waters. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2012.

A Study of Hallucinations in Normal Subjects
McCreery, C. and G. Claridge. Personality and Individual Differences, 1996, 21 (5): 739–747.

Psychotic Symptoms in an Urban General Medicine Practice
Olfson, M., R. Lewis-Fernandez, M. Weissman, A. Feder, M. Gamerof, D. Pilowsky, and M. Fuentes. American Journal of Psychiatry, August 2002, 159: 1412–1419.

Hallucinations in A Normal Population: Imagery and Personality Influences
Rodrigo, A.M.L., M.M.P. Pineiro, P.C.M. Suarez, M.I. Caro, and S.L. Giraldez. Psychology in Spain, 1997, 1 (1): 10–16.

Coping with Hearing Voices: An Emancipatory Approach
Romme, M.A.J., A. Honig, E.O. Noorthoorn, and A.D.M.A.C. Escher. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1992, 161: 99–103.