The Bicameral Mind: Command Hallucinations

Hypothesis Two: The Bicameral Mind – Subtopic: Command Hallucinations
In his theory, Julian Jaynes explains how commanding hallucinations directed behavior in an earlier mentality, prior to the development of subjective consciousness. Jaynes’s theory would predict that auditory hallucinations would not just consist of random voices, but would in fact comment on or direct behavior. Unknown at the time, hallucinations commanding behavior, referred to as “command hallucinations,” have since been documented in dozens of studies. Below is a small sample of research supporting this aspect of Jaynes’s theory.

Articles

  • Acting on Command Hallucinations: A Cognitive Approach
    Beck-Sander, A., M. Birchwood, and P. Chadwick, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, February 1997, 36, 1, 139–48.Beck-Sander, A., M. Birchwood, and P. Chadwick, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, February 1997, 36, 1, 139–48.Beck-Sander, A., M. Birchwood, and P. Chadwick, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, February 1997, 36, 1, 139–48.
  • Command Hallucinations: Who Obeys and Who Resists When?
    Erkwoh, R., K. Willmes, A. Eming-Erdmanna and H.J. Kunert. Psychopathology, 2002, 35, 272–279.Erkwoh, R., K. Willmes, A. Eming-Erdmanna and H.J. Kunert. Psychopathology, 2002, 35, 272–279.Erkwoh, R., K. Willmes, A. Eming-Erdmanna and H.J. Kunert. Psychopathology, 2002, 35, 272–279.
  • Visual Command Hallucinations in a Patient with Pure Alexia
    ffytche, D.H., J.M. Lappin, and M. Philpot, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 2004, 75, 80–86.ffytche, D.H., J.M. Lappin, and M. Philpot, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 2004, 75, 80–86.ffytche, D.H., J.M. Lappin, and M. Philpot, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 2004, 75, 80–86.
  • Command Hallucinations, Compliance, and Risk Assessment
    Hersh, K., and R. Borum, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1998, 26, 353–359.Hersh, K., and R. Borum, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1998, 26, 353–359.Hersh, K., and R. Borum, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1998, 26, 353–359.
  • Predicting Compliance with Command Hallucinations
    Junginger, J., The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 2, 245–247.Junginger, J., The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 2, 245–247.Junginger, J., The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 2, 245–247.
  • Command Hallucinations and the Prediction of Dangerousness
    Junginger, J., Psychiatric Services, September 1995, 46, 911–914.Junginger, J., Psychiatric Services, September 1995, 46, 911–914.Junginger, J., Psychiatric Services, September 1995, 46, 911–914.
  • Compulsions Developing into Command Hallucinations
    Klemperer, F., Psychopathology, 1996, 29, 4, 249–51.Klemperer, F., Psychopathology, 1996, 29, 4, 249–51.Klemperer, F., Psychopathology, 1996, 29, 4, 249–51.
  • Command Hallucinations Among Asian Patients with Schizophrenia
    Lee T.M., S.A. Chong, Y.H. Chan, and G. Sathyadevan, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, December 2004, 49, 12, 838–42.Lee T.M., S.A. Chong, Y.H. Chan, and G. Sathyadevan, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, December 2004, 49, 12, 838–42.Lee T.M., S.A. Chong, Y.H. Chan, and G. Sathyadevan, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, December 2004, 49, 12, 838–42.
  • The Relationship Between Command Hallucinations and Violence
    McNiel, Dale E., Jane P. Eisner, and Renée L. Binder, Psychiatric Services, October 2000, 51, 1288–1292.McNiel, Dale E., Jane P. Eisner, and Renée L. Binder, Psychiatric Services, October 2000, 51, 1288–1292.McNiel, Dale E., Jane P. Eisner, and Renée L. Binder, Psychiatric Services, October 2000, 51, 1288–1292.
  • Compliance with Command Hallucinations: The Role of Power in Relation to the Voice, and Social Rank in Relation to the Voice and Others
    Reynolds, Nicky and Peter Scragg, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 2010, 21, 1, 121-138.Reynolds, Nicky and Peter Scragg, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 2010, 21, 1, 121-138.Reynolds, Nicky and Peter Scragg, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 2010, 21, 1, 121-138.
  • The Clinical Presentation of Command Hallucinations in a Forensic Population
    Rogers, R., J.R. Gillis, R.E. Turner, and T. Frise-Smith, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 1304–1307.Rogers, R., J.R. Gillis, R.E. Turner, and T. Frise-Smith, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 1304–1307.Rogers, R., J.R. Gillis, R.E. Turner, and T. Frise-Smith, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 1304–1307.
  • Relation Between Command Hallucinations and Dangerous Behavior
    Rudnick, A., Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1999, 27, 252-257.Rudnick, A., Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1999, 27, 252-257.Rudnick, A., Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1999, 27, 252-257.
  • Command Hallucinations in Outpatients with Schizophrenia
    Zisook, S., D. Byrd, J. Kuck, D.V. Jeste, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1995, 56, 10, 462–5.Zisook, S., D. Byrd, J. Kuck, D.V. Jeste, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1995, 56, 10, 462–5.Zisook, S., D. Byrd, J. Kuck, D.V. Jeste, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1995, 56, 10, 462–5.

Books

Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations

Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations
Meaden, Alan, Nadine Keen, and Robert Aston (Routledge, 2013)
Auditory hallucinations rank amongst the most treatment resistant symptoms of schizophrenia, with command hallucinations being the most distressing, high risk and treatment resistant of all. This new work provides clinicians with a detailed guide, illustrating in depth the techniques and strategies developed for working with command hallucinations. Woven throughout with key cases and clinical examples, Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations clearly demonstrates how these techniques can be applied in a clinical setting. Strategies and solutions for overcoming therapeutic obstacles are shown alongside treatment successes and failures to provide the reader with an accurate understanding of the complexities of cognitive therapy.