A Vestige of the Bicameral Mind
In his theory, Julian Jaynes explains how commanding hallucinations directed behavior in an earlier mentality, prior to the development of subjective consciousness. Jaynes’s theory would predict that auditory hallucinations would not just consist of random voices, but would in fact comment on or direct behavior. Unknown at the time, hallucinations commanding behavior, referred to as “command hallucinations,” have since been documented in dozens of studies. Below is a small sample of research supporting this aspect of Jaynes’s theory.
- Acting on Command Hallucinations: A Cognitive ApproachBeck-Sander, A., M. Birchwood, and P. Chadwick, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, February 1997, 36, 1, 139–48.
- Command Hallucinations: Who Obeys and Who Resists When?Erkwoh, R., K. Willmes, A. Eming-Erdmanna and H.J. Kunert. Psychopathology, 2002, 35, 272–279.
- Visual Command Hallucinations in a Patient with Pure Alexiaffytche, D.H., J.M. Lappin, and M. Philpot, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 2004, 75, 80–86.
- Command Hallucinations, Compliance, and Risk AssessmentHersh, K., and R. Borum, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1998, 26, 353–359.
- Predicting Compliance with Command HallucinationsJunginger, J., The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 2, 245–247.
- Command Hallucinations and the Prediction of DangerousnessJunginger, J., Psychiatric Services, September 1995, 46, 911–914.
- Compulsions Developing into Command HallucinationsKlemperer, F., Psychopathology, 1996, 29, 4, 249–51.
- Command Hallucinations Among Asian Patients with SchizophreniaLee T.M., S.A. Chong, Y.H. Chan, and G. Sathyadevan, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, December 2004, 49, 12, 838–42.
- The Relationship Between Command Hallucinations and ViolenceMcNiel, Dale E., Jane P. Eisner, and Renée L. Binder, Psychiatric Services, October 2000, 51, 1288–1292.
- Compliance with Command Hallucinations: The Role of Power in Relation to the Voice, and Social Rank in Relation to the Voice and OthersReynolds, Nicky and Peter Scragg, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 2010, 21, 1, 121-138.
- The Clinical Presentation of Command Hallucinations in a Forensic PopulationRogers, R., J.R. Gillis, R.E. Turner, and T. Frise-Smith, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990, 147, 1304–1307.
- Relation Between Command Hallucinations and Dangerous BehaviorRudnick, A., Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 1999, 27, 252-257.
- Command Hallucinations in Outpatients with SchizophreniaZisook, S., D. Byrd, J. Kuck, D.V. Jeste, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1995, 56, 10, 462–5.
Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations