Hypothesis Four: Jaynes’s Neurological Model – Subtopic: Neuroimaging Auditory Hallucinations
In his theory, Julian Jaynes describes the role hallucinations played in an earlier mentality called the bicameral mind, prior to the development of subjective consciousness. Jaynes’s neurological model for the bicameral mind predicts that auditory hallucinations would be generated by the language areas in the right temporal lobe and be “heard” or processed by the left. This prediction has been now been verified as accurate by numerous studies. Jaynes was not only correct about the neurology of auditory hallucinations, but decades ahead of his time. Below is a small sample of research supporting this aspect of Jaynes’s theory (highlighted text calls attention to areas of the right hemisphere that Jaynes predicted would play a role in hallucinations). See also: Right Hemisphere & Language
- Cerebral Activity Associated with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Case StudyBentaleb, L.A., M. Beauregard, P. Liddle, and E. Stip, Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 2002, 27, 2, 110.
- Cerebral Glucography with Positron Tomography: Use In Normal Subjects and In Patients with SchizophreniaBuchsbaum, M.S., D.H. Ingvar, R. Kessler, R.N. Waters, J. Cappelletti, D.P. van Kammen, A.C. King, et al., Archives of General Psychiatry, 1982, 39, 251–259.
- Regional Brain Metabolism During Auditory Hallucinations in Chronic SchizophreniaCleghorn, J.M., E.S. Garnett, C. Nahmias, and G.M. Brown, The British Journal of Psychiatry, October 1990, 157, 4 , 562-570.
- Cerebral Lateralization is Delayed in Children who Later Develop SchizophreniaCrow, T.J., D.J. Done, and A. Sacker, Schizophrenia Research, 1996, 22, 3, 181–185.
- Time Course of Regional Brain Activity Accompanying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in SchizophreniaHoffman, R.E., B. Pittman, R.T. Constable, Z. Bhagwagar and M. Hampson, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2011, 198, 4, 277–283.
- Activation of Bilateral Auditory Cortex during Verbal Hallucinations in a Child with SchizophreniaJardri, R., D. Pins, C. Delmaire, J-L. Goeb and P. Thomas, Molecular Psychiatry, April 2007, 12, 4, 319.
- Functional MRI of Verbal Self-Monitoring in SchizophreniaKumari, V., D. Fannon, D.H. ffytche, V. Raveendran, E. Antonova, et al., Schizophrenia Bulletin, November 7, 2008.
- Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Neural Activity Associated with Auditory HallucinationsLennox, B.R., S. Bert, G. Park, P.B. Jones, and P.G. Morris, Lancet, 1999, 353, 644.
- The Functional Anatomy of Auditory Hallucinations in SchizophreniaLennox B.R., S.B. Park, I. Medley, P.G. Morris, and P.B. Jones, Psychiatry Research, November 2000, 100, 1, 13–20.
- The Brain’s Voices: Comparing Nonclinical Auditory Hallucinations and ImageryLinden, David E.J., Katy Thornton, Carissa N. Kuswanto, Stephen J. Johnston, Vincent van de Ven and Michael C. Jackson, Cerebral Cortex, 2010, 21, 2, 330–337.
- Temporal Course of Auditory HallucinationsShergill S.S., M.J. Brammer, E. Amaro, S.C. Williams, R.M. Murray, and P.K. McGuire, British Journal of Psychiatry, December 2004, 185, 516–7.
- Engagement of Brain Areas Implicated in Processing Inner Speech in People with Auditory HallucinationsShergill S.S., M.J. Brammer, R. Fukuda, S.C. Williams, R.M. Murray, and P.K. McGuire, British Journal of Psychiatry, June 2003, 182, 525–31.
- Functional Anatomy of Auditory Verbal Imagery in Schizophrenic Patients With Auditory HallucinationsShergill, S.S., E. Bullmore, A. Simmons, R. Murray, and P. McGuire, American Journal of Psychiatry, October 2000, 157, 1691–1693.
- Language Production in the Non-Dominant Hemisphere as a Potential Source of Auditory Verbal HallucinationsSommer, Iris E. and Kelly M. Diederen, Brain, 2009, 132, 10, e124.
- Auditory Verbal Hallucinations Predominantely Activate the Right Inferior Frontal AreaSommer, I.E.C., K.M.J. Diederen, J-D. Blom, A. Willems, L. Kushan, K. Slotema, M.P.M. Boks, K. Daalman, H.W. Hoek, S.F.W. Neggers, and R.S. Kahn, Brain, October 13, 2008.
- Can fMRI-guidance Improve the Efficacy of rTMS Treatment for Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?Sommer, I.E.C., C.W. Slotema, A.D. de Weijer, J. Blom, K. Daalman, S. Neggers, M. Somers, H. Hoek, A. Aleman, and R. Kahn, Schizophrenia Research, 2007, 93, 1, 406–8.
- Auditory Hallucinations After Right Temporal Gyri ResectionStewart, Bronagh and D.M. Brennan, Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, May 2005, 17, 243–245.
- Language Lateralization in Unmedicated Patients during an Acute Episode of Schizophrenia: A Functional MRI StudyWeiss, E.M., A. Hofer, S. Golaszewski, C. Siedentopf, S. Felber, and W.W. Fleischhacker, Psychiatry Research, 2006, 146, 185–190.
- Auditory Hallucinations and the Temporal Cortical Response to Speech in Schizophrenia: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging StudyWoodruff, P.W.R., I.C. Wright, E.T. Bullmore, M. Brammer, R.J. Howard, S.C.R. Williams, J. Shapleske, S. Rossell, A.S. David, P.K. McGuire, and R.M. Murray, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1997, 154, 1676–1682.
- Auditory Hallucinations in Acute StrokeYampl, Y., M. Lorberboym, R. Gilad, M. Boaz, and M. Sadeh, Behavioural Neurology, 2005, 16, 4, 211–216.
Language Lateralization and Psychosis